India's Supreme Court has upheld the death sentence against the last survivor of a terrorist gang who launched deadly attacks in Mumbai in 2008.
Mohammad Ajmal Kasab, who was among the group of militants who killed 166 people in the country's financial capital, was convicted of more than 80 charges in 2010.
The Pakistan-born gunman was sentenced to death by hanging but appealed, claiming that he had not received a fair trial.
However, the two Supreme Court judges ruled: "We are left with no option but to award death penalty. The primary and foremost offence committed by Kasab is waging war against the government of India."
Kasab, who is currently held in a maximum-security prison in Mumbai, is now expected to lodge a final appeal for clemency with new President Pranab Mukherjee.
He was filmed walking through Mumbai's main train station carrying an AK-47 and a bag on his back during a series of co-ordinated strikes on key landmarks in the city.
The three-day rampage led to an increase in tension between India and its nuclear-armed neighbour Pakistan, causing a temporary suspension of peace talks.
India blames the Pakistan-based Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT) militant organisation for training, equipping and financing the gunmen with support from "elements" in the Pakistan military.
Kasab initially pleaded not guilty but later confessed, admitting he was one of the gunmen sent by the LeT.
At his trial, the prosecution produced fingerprint, DNA, eyewitness and TV footage evidence showing him opening fire and throwing grenades in the train station in the bloodiest episode of the attacks.
Pakistan has admitted they were planned partly on its soil, but flatly denies any official involvement. It charged seven alleged plotters behind the attacks in 2009 but says it needs more evidence to convict them.
Only one execution has taken place in India in 15 years - that of a former security guard hanged in 2004 for the rape and murder of a 14-year-old girl.